Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

   |About WALLRB|General Resources |Work |Learning |Work & Learning |Other Topics |


Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base

Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

Principal Investigator: D. W. Livingstone

        Team Members: Milosh M. Raykov
        K. Pollock, F. Antonelli, A. Scholtz




David W. Livingstone, Principal Investigator

Canada Research Chair in Lifelong Learning and Work
The purpose of the Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base (WALLRB) is to provide a wide range of bibliographic references and links to full-text sources of research on diverse forms of lifelong learning and diverse forms of work, with a primary focus on the relations between learning and work. The conceptions of learning (including formal schooling, continuing education, informal education and non-taught informal learning) and of work (including household and volunteer work as well as paid employment) are more inclusive than prior common usage and bibliographic conventions have encouraged. Sections on general theoretical perspectives and relevant research methods are included as well as specific studies of different aspects of work, learning, work-learning relations and several other topics. The current version of the WALLRB focuses on materials from the 2000 to 2006 period, with a few earlier items. 

The WALLRB is being developed under the sponsorship of the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI) fund award associated with the Canada Research Chair in Lifelong Learning and Work. The WALLRB is coordinated by the Centre for the Study of Education and Work (CSEW), located at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto (OISE/UT). This collection of learning and work resources was developed in consultation with OISE/UT library staff and many of these resources may be found in the OISE/UT library.  

The WALLRB provides extensive coverage of international, mostly English language sources and includes: (1) the most extensive current annotated bibliography of research and policy studies on lifelong learning and work issues; (2) an extensive listing and data archive of recent surveys and case studies on learning and work; and (3) a growing collection of books, articles and other materials related to CSEW to be accessible through the University of Toronto library system. 

The WALLRB builds on related bibliographic research done by the research network on the Changing Nature of Work and Lifelong Learning (WALL) sponsored by the Social Sciences and Humanities Federation of Canada (SSHRC). The preliminary WALL bibliography (WALL Working Paper # 2 by Livingstone, Raykov and Stowe), is available, along with other WALL General Studies Papers at the WALL website ( The WALLRB also builds on the prior bibliographies focused on informal learning (see Adams et al, 1999; Luciani, 2001) produced by the SSHRC research network on New Approaches to Lifelong Learning (NALL); these are available at the NALL website ( An annotated bibliography of many of the research papers produced by NALL (Livingstone, 2006) is also available at both the NALL and WALL websites.




1.         General Resources for Work and Learning

1.1.       Research Methods for Studying Learning and Work Relations

1.2.       Compendium of Surveys on Learning and Work

1.3.       Case Studies of Learning and Work


2.         Work   

2.1.       General Perspectives on the Changing Nature of Work

2.2.       Assessments of "Knowledge-based Economy", “Post-Industrial
               Society”, "New Economy" and Economic Globalization

2.3.       Changes in Paid Work and Employment Statuses

2.4.       Changes in Household Work

2.5.       Changes in Community Volunteer Work


3.         Learning

3.1.       Lifelong Learning – General Perspectives on
              Learning in Contemporary Society

3.2.       Formal Education, Schooling     

3.3.       Adult/Further/Continuing/Non-formal Education, Formal Training

3.4.       Informal Education/Training

3.5.       Informal Learning, Self-directed Learning

3.6.       Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition


4.         Work and Learning

4.1.       General Perspectives on Learning-Work Relationships

4.2        Employment and Education/Formal Training, Apprenticeships

4.3.       Employment and Informal Education/Informal Learning

4.4.       Unpaid Work and Learning

4.5.       Education-Job Requirement Matching
(Underemployment and Underqualification)

4.6.       Power Relations and Social Inequality in Work and Learning

4.7.       Work and Learning and the Labour Movement/Unions

4.8.       School-to-Work Transitions

4.9.       Work and Learning through the Adult Life Course


5.0.       Other Topics in Learning and Work

5.1.       Technological Change, Learning and Work

5.2.       Immigrants, Work and Learning

5.3.       Disability, Work and Learning     

5.4.       Working Conditions, Stress & Learning: Teachers & Other Workers


The WALLRB relies primarily on the sources listed in the following table:



University of Toronto

York University

Ryerson University

Canadian National Library

   US Library of Congress

Bibliographic Databases

Sociological Abstracts



Worldwide Political Science Abstracts

Canadian Education Index

CBCA Full-text Education

Education-line: Electronic Texts in Education and Training


Review of Relevant Journals

Journal of Education and Work

Studies in Adult Education

Work and Occupations

Work, Employment and Society

Canadian Journal of Sociology

Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology

Annual Review of Sociology

American Journal of Sociology

British Journal of Sociology of Education

Contemporary Sociology

International Journal of Sociology

   Women's Studies

Government Sources

Statistics Canada

US Department of Labour

   US Department of education

   International Labour Organization

Internet Search Engines


The following keywords, mostly drawn from prior bibliographic databases, were used to aid the initial search process for relevant work and learning studies:



Adult Education

Adult Students

Continuing Education

Educational Environment

Educational Needs

Educational Practices

Educational Policy

Experiential Learning

Formal Education

Informal Learning

Informal Education

Learning Theories

Learning Processes

Lifelong Learning

Nonformal Learning

Nonformal Education

Participatory Education

Prior Learning

Self-Directed Learning

Self-Planned Learning


Vocational Learning

Vocational Education

Workplace Training

Workplace Learning

Workplace Literacy

Work and Learning/ Learning and Work Relations

Career Development

Education Work Relationship

Professional Development

Skill Development

Education and Employment

Partnerships in Education

School to Work Transitions


Paid Work Employment Status

Knowledge Workers






Part-Time Work

Temporary Work

At Risk Workers

Disabled Workers

Immigrant Workers

Contingent Work


Service Personnel

Employee Attitudes, Morale, Motivation, Participation, Rights, Turnover

Employers’ Requirements

Employment Policy

Employment Practices

Employment Changes

Hiring Practices


Work Attitudes

Job Design





Changes in Paid Work

Unpaid Work

Volunteer Work

Community Work

Community Involvement

Household Work



Family Roles

Family Structure

Family-Work Relationship


Social Class

Class Analysis


Social Change


Organizational Change

Economic Change

Effects Of Social Change


Information Age

Information Economy

Information Society

Information Technology

Knowledge Based Economy (KBE)

Technology - Social Aspects

Economic Conditions

Economic Policy

Power Relations

Sex Roles

Division of Labour

Life Cycle

Sexual Division of Labour Demand-Control

Effort-Reward Imbalance

Social Control

Social Theories of Work and Learning

Research Methods

Case Studies

Social Surveys


Social Inequality

Social Justice




Labour Movement

Social Movements

Industrial Relations

Labour Relations

Labour Force

Quality of Work

Job Characteristics

Job Satisfaction

Job Security

Work and Stress

Working Hours


Hours of Work/Labour

Flexible Working Hours

Labour Laws And Legislation

Labour Market

Labour Supply

Labour Turnover


Labour Unions


Women in Trade-Unions

Women Labour Union

Labour Unions and Education

Labour Education

Teacher Work

Teaching Conditions

Teacher Hours of Work

Teacher Attitudes

Teacher Supply/Demand

Teacher Education

Student Teachers





Marital Status

Single Parents

Educational Status

Educational Attainment

Rural/Urban Regions


Immigrant Status


 The current search was completed by relying on the general categories in the table of contents in conjunction with these keywords. Again, the emphasis throughout was on resources that addressed the relations between work and learning. The WALLRB is not intended to be inclusive of all relevant items but indicative of the diversity of issues and representative of the types of recent studies. Each item contains basic citation information, an annotation and a set of keywords. Most annotations are based on publicly available sources provided through government agencies, most notably the ERIC database. Website addresses for available relevant items are provided and directly linked to the sources through the html version of the WALLRB.

The WALLRB can be searched through the table of contents categories, keywords, or through a full-text search using any word contained within the references. Indexes of authors cited and keywords use in WALLRB are provided as search aids. Either web interface or MS Word search functions may be used. The WALLRB is available in several formats including standard printed form as well as different electronic forms (PDF, MS Word, searchable html, EndNote and RIS file format) which should make this database almost universally accessible. The WALLRB is accessible through the website, as well as through the web server Together with the Centre for the Study of Education and Work (CSEW), University of Toronto Library System has recently established a research repository which makes studies developed through the NALL and WALL research networks permanently available for public access through the UT Library Website ( 1807/2390). The infrastructure of WALLRB is designed to facilitate continuing updating.

Most of the item-by-item search process was conducted by Fab Antonelli, Milosh Raykov and Katina Pollock. They each handled major sections. Milosh integrated and formatted these materials. I was responsible for editing. Rhonda Sussman assisted with final editing. Others whose resource searches contributed to specific sections were: Victoria Bowman, Kathryn Church, Sandria Officer and Antonie Scholtz. We are grateful to OISE/UT Education Commons staff who assisted in the acquisition of library materials and development of the searchable web interface for the resource base, most notably Don Banh, Valerie Downs, Julie Hannaford and Judith Snow.

Any feedback on the further development of the WALLRB is most welcome. Please send any comments or suggestions to Dr. D.W. Livingstone, Department of Sociology and Equity Studies, OISE/UT, 252 Bloor St. W., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1V6 (phone: 416 923-6641 x2703, email:

We hope the WALLRB will become a widely usable resource base in learning and work as well as a building block for continuing research, policy formation and practice in this burgeoning field.

D. W. Livingstone                                                                                November 30, 2006

Key Previous Sources

  • Adams, M., Livingstone, D.W., Roth, R., Sawchuk, P., Terepocki, M. & Vanstone, S. (1999). Preliminary bibliography of the research network for new approaches to lifelong learning (NALL). NALL Working Paper No. 1. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

  • Livingstone, D.W. (ed.) (2006). NALL Working Papers: Annotated Bibliography of Studies Based on Data from the Research Network on New Approaches to Lifelong Learning. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at: and

  • Livingstone, D. W., Stowe, S. & Raykov M. (2003). Annotated bibliography on the changing nature of work and lifelong learning. WALL Working Paper 2. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

  • Luciani, T. (2001). Second NALL bibliography on informal and non-formal learning. NALL Working Paper No. 48. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:


About the WALLRB

1. General Resources
for Work & Learning

2. Work

3. Learning

4. Work & Learning

5. Other Topics in
Learning & Work




Index of Authors [PDF]
of Keywords [PDF]

NALL Working Papers

Related Projects:




Related Websites:




  |About WALLRB|General Resources |Work |Learning |Work & Learning |Other Topics |